Arch Fam Med
Institution: STANFORD Univ Med Center  | My Account | E-mail Alerts | Access Rights | Sign In
  Vol. 5 No. 5, May 1996 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  •  Online Features
 This Article
 •Full text PDF
 •Send to a friend
 • Save in My Folder
 •Save to citation manager
 Citing Articles
 •Citation map
 •Contact me when this article is cited
 Related Content
 •Similar articles in this journal

Current Concepts


Lewis H. Kaminester, MD

Arch Fam Med. 1996;5(5):289-295.

Article references have been provided for searching and linking. Additional reference information may be available in the article PDF.

1. Boldeman C, Ullen H, Mansson-Brahme E, Holm LE. Primary prevention of malignant melanoma in the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Programme. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1993;2:441-446. PUBMED
2. Pollan M, Lopez-Abente G. Mortality trends in cutaneous malignant melanoma in Spain, 1967-1986. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1993;2:545-550. FREE FULL TEXT
3. Vail-Smith K, Felts WM. Sunbathing: college students' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risks. J Am Coll Health. 1993;42:21-26. PUBMED
4. Berry P. Learning to save our skin. Hawaii Med J. 1993;52:142-144. PUBMED
5. Hughes BR, Altman DG, Newton JA. Melanoma and skin cancer: evaluation of a health education programme for secondary schools. Br J Dermatol. 1993;128:412-417. PUBMED
6. Hill D, White V Marks R, Borland R. Changes in sun-related attitudes and behaviors, and reduced sunburn prevalence in a population at high risk of melanoma. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1993;2:447-456. PUBMED
7. Girgis A, Sanson-Fisher RW, Watson A. A workplace intervention for increasing outdoor workers' use of solar protection. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:77-81. FREE FULL TEXT
8. Loescher LJ. Skin cancer prevention and detection update. Semin Oncol Nurs. 1993;9:184-187. PUBMED
9. Guercio-Hauer C, Macfarlane DF, Deleo VA. Photodamage, photoaging and photoprotection of the skin. Am Fam Physician. 1994;50:327-332, 334. PUBMED
10. National Institutes of Health summary of the Consensus Development Conference on Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, and the Skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:608-612. PUBMED
11. Sun know-how: taking preventive action. Occup Health (Lond). 1994;46:206-207. PUBMED
12. Kamin CS, O'Neill PN, Ahearn MJ. Developing and evaluating a cancer prevention teaching module for secondary education: project safety (sun awareness for educating today's youth). J Cancer Educ. 1993;8:313-318. PUBMED
13. Gilchrest BA. Sunscreens: a public health opportunity. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1193-1194. FREE FULL TEXT
14. Kaminester LH. Sunlight, skin cancer and sunscreens. JAMA. 1975;232:1373-1374. FREE FULL TEXT
15. Kaminester LH. Sunlight: its effects and preventive therapy—part 1. Dermatology. July 1978:40-44.
16. Kaminester LH. Skin cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Hosp Med. March 1990:9-115.
17. Green AC. Premature aging of the skin in a Queensland population. Med J Aust. 1991;155:473-478. PUBMED
18. Balin AK, Pratt LA. Physiological consequences of human skin aging. Cutis. 1989;43:431-436. PUBMED
19. Smith L. Histopathologic characteristics and ultra structure of aging skin. Cutis. 1989;43:414-424. PUBMED
20. Shaath N. The chemistry of sunscreens. In: N Lowe, N Shaath, eds. Sunscreens: Development, Evaluation, and Regulatory Aspects. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1990:211-233.
21. Sayre RM, Kollias N, Roberts RL, Baqer A. Physical sunscreens. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1990;41:103-109.
22. Roelandts R. Which components in broadspectrum sunscreens are most necessary for adequate UVA protection? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;25:999-1004.
23. Diffey BL, Farr PM. Sunscreen protection against UVB, UVA and blue light: an in vivo and in vitro comparison. Br J Dermatol. 1991;124:258-263. PUBMED
24. Kligman LH. Intensification of ultravioletinduced dermal damage by infrared radiation. Arch Dermatol Res. 1982;272:229-238. PUBMED
25. Food and Drug Administration. Sunscreen products for over-the-counter human use. Federal Register. 1978;43:38206-38269.
26. Rigel DS, Kopf AW, Friedman RJ. The rate of malignant melanoma in the United States: are we making an impact? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:1050-1053. PUBMED
27. Apelgren J. Pale is beautiful. Nurs Times. 1992;88:24-26. PUBMED
28. Food and Drug Administration. Sunscreen products for over-the-counter human use. Federal Register. 1993;58:28194-28302.
29. 21 CFR parts 352, 700, and 740. Discussion of ultraviolet A protection claims and testing procedures for over-the-counter sunscreen drug products. Public meeting and reopening of the administrative record; proposed rule. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, April 5, 1994.
30. Diffey BL, Robson JJ. A new substrate to measure sunscreen protective factors throughout the ultraviolet spectrum. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1989;40:127-133.
31. Roelandts R, Sohrbvand N, Garmyn M. Evaluating the UVA protection of sunscreens. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;21:56-62.
32. Sayre RM, Agin PP. A method for the determination of UVA protection for normal skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:429-440. PUBMED
33. Kaidbey KH, Barnes A. Determination of UVA protection factors by means of immediate pigment darkening in normal skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:262-266. PUBMED
34. Cole C, VanFossen R. Measurement of sunscreen UVA protection: an unsenstized human model. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26:178-184. PUBMED
35. Agin P. Broad spectrum protection in sunscreen products. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:648-649. PUBMED
36. Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Rising trends in melanoma: an hypothesis concerning sunscreen effectiveness. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3:103-110. PUBMED
37. Urbach F. Ultraviolet A transmission by modern sunscreens: is there a real risk? Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1992;9:237-241. PUBMED
38. Pathak MA, DeLeo VA, Epstein JH, Morison W. Rising trends in melanoma: an hypothesis concerning sunscreen effectiveness: the Photobiology Committee of the Skin Cancer Foundation. Ann Epidemol. 1993;3:451.
39. Cascinelli N, Krutmann J, MacKie R, et al. European School of Oncology advisory report: sun exposure, UVA lamps and risk of skin cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30:548-560.
40. Truhan AP. Sun protection in childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1991;30:676-681. FREE FULL TEXT
41. Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Bajdik CD, et al. Sunlight exposure, pigmentation factors, and risk of nonmelanocytic skin cancer. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:164-169. FREE FULL TEXT
42. Bavinck JN, De Boer A, Vermeer BJ, et al. Sunlight, keratotic skin lesions and skin cancer in renal transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol. 1993;129:242-249. PUBMED
43. Stern R, Weinstock M, Baker S. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use. Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:537-545. FREE FULL TEXT
44. Elwood JM. Melanoma and sun exposure: contrasts between intermittent and chronic exposure. World J Surg. 1992;16:157-165. PUBMED
45. Mack TM, Floderus B. Malignant melanoma risk by nativity, place of residence at diagnosis, and age at migration. Cancer Causes Control. 1991;2:401-411. PUBMED
46. Osterlind A. Malignant melanoma in Denmark: occurrence and risk factors. Acta Oncol. 1990;29:833-854. PUBMED
47. Children and the sun's UV rays don't mix. Hosp Health Netw. 1994;68:15. PUBMED
48. Kricker A, Armstrong B, English D, et al. A case-control study of nonmelanocytic skin cancer and sun exposure in Western Australia. Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1991;117(suppl):75. Abstract.
49. Rees J. Genetic alterations in nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;103:747-750. PUBMED
50. Morales Suarez-Varela M, Llopis Gonzalez A, Ferrer Caraco E. Non-melanoma skin cancer: an evaluation of risk in terms of ultraviolet exposure. Eur J Epidemiol. 1992;8:838-844. PUBMED
51. Weinstock MA. Assessment of sun sensitivity by questionnaire: validity of items and formulation of a prediction rule. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:547-552. PUBMED
52. Alcalay J, Freeman SE, Goldberg LH, Wolf JE. Excision repair of pyrimidine dimers induced by simulated solar radiation in the skin of patients with basal cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 1990;95:506-509. PUBMED
53. Beitner H, Norell SE, Ringborg U, Wennersten G, Mattson B. Malignant melanoma: etiological importance of individual pigmentation and sun exposure. Br J Dermatol. 1990;122:43-51. PUBMED
54. Kricker A, Armstrong B, English D. et al. Pigmentary and cutaneous risk factors for nonmelanocytic cancer: a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1991;48:650-662. PUBMED
55. Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Bajdik CD, et al. Sunlight Exposure, pigmentary factors, and risk of nonmelanocytic skin cancer. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:157. FREE FULL TEXT
56. Osterlind A. Fair complexion and risk of malignant melanoma of the skin based on experience from the Danish Cancer Registry. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1993;128:91-100. PUBMED
57. Weiss J, Bertz J, Jung EG. Malignant melanoma in southern Germany: different predictive value of risk factors for melanoma subtypes. Dermatologica. 1991;183:109-113. PUBMED
58. Carey FA, Hogan JM. The relationship of sun exposure and solar elastosis to skin cancer in a high risk population. Ir J Med Sci. 1990;159:44-47. PUBMED
59. White E, Kirkpatrick CS, Lee JA. Case-control study of malignant melanoma in Washington State, I: constitutional factors and sun exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:857-868. FREE FULL TEXT
60. Schmieder GJ, Yoshikawa T, Mata SM, Streilein JW, Taylor JR. Cumulative sunlight exposure and the risk of developing skin cancer in Florida. Dermatol Surg. 1992;18:517-522.
61. Kossard S, Rosen R. Cutaneous Bowen's disease: an analysis of 1001 cases according to age, sex, and site. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:406-410. PUBMED
62. Kuflik AS, Schwartz RA. Actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. Am Fam Physician. 1994;4:817-820.
63. Pathak MA. Ultraviolet radiation and the development of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer: clinical and experimental evidence. Skin Pharmacol. 1991;4(suppl_1):85-94. PUBMED
64. Dubin N, Pasternack BS, Moseson M. Simultaneous assessment of risk factors for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin lesions, with emphasis on sun exposure and related variables. Int J Epidemiol. 1990;19:811-819. FREE FULL TEXT
65. Koh HK, Kligler BE, Lew RA. Sunlight and cutaneous malignant melanoma: evidence for and against causation. Photochem Photobiol. 1990;51:765-779. PUBMED
66. Vitasa BC, Taylor HR, Strickland PT, et al. Association of nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis with cumulative solar ultraviolet exposure in Maryland watermen. Cancer. 1990;65:2811-2817. PUBMED
67. Glass AG, Hoover RN. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer. JAMA. 1989;262:2097-2100. FREE FULL TEXT
68. Scotto J, Fears TR, Fraumeni JF. Incidence of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in the United States. Washington, DC: Public Health Service; 1983. NIH publication 83-2433.
69. Fears TR, Scotto J. Changes in skin cancer morbidity between 1971-72 and 1977-78. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1982;69:365-370. PUBMED
70. Miller DL, Weinstock MA. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States: incidence. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30:774-778. PUBMED
71. Sober AJ, Lew RA, Koh HK, Barnhell RL. Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma: an update. Dermatol Clin. 1991;9:617-629. PUBMED
72. Armstrong BK, Kricker A. How much melanoma is caused by sun exposure? Melanoma Res. 1993;3:395-401. PUBMED
73. Setlow RB, Wookhead AD, Grist E. Animal model for ultraviolet radiation-induced melanoma: platyfish-swordtail hybrid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989;86:8922-8926. FREE FULL TEXT
74. Weinstock MA. Epidemiology of melanoma. In: Nathanson L, ed. Current Research and Clinical Management of Melanoma. Hingham, Mass: Kluwer Boston Inc; 1993:29-56.
75. Rigel DS. Epidemiology and prognostic factors in malignant melanoma. Ann Plast Surg. 1992;28:7-8. PUBMED
76. Koh HK, Sinks TH, Geller AC, Miller DR, Lew RA. Etiology of melanoma. Cancer Treat Res. 1992;65:1-28.
77. Krishnamurthy S. The geography of nonocular malignant melanoma in India: its association with latitude, ozone levels and UV light exposure. Int J Cancer. 1929;51:169-172.
78. Weinstock MA, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. Melanoma and the sun: the effect of swimsuits and a 'healthy' tan on the risk of nonfamilial malignant melanoma in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134:462-470. FREE FULL TEXT
79. Ketchum P. Mortality rates from melanoma are rising. Can Fam Physician. 1992;39:1333-1334.
80. Boring CC, Squires TS, Tong T, et al. Cancer statistics, 1994. CA Cancer J Clin. 1994;44:7-26. PUBMED
81. Robinson JK, Rademaker AW. Relative importance of prior basal cell carcinomas, continuing sun exposure, and circulating T lymphocytes on the development of basal cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 1992;99:227-231. PUBMED
82. Tie C, Golomb C, Taylor JR, Streilein JW. Suppressive and enhancing effects of ultraviolet B radiation on expression of contact hypersensitivity in man. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;104:18-22. PUBMED
83. Rogers GS, Gilchrest BA. The senile epidermis: environmental influences on skin ageing and cutaneous carcinogenesis. Br J Dermatol. 1990;122(suppl 35):55-60. PUBMED
84. Lavker RM, Gerberick GF, Veres D, Irwin CJ, Kaidbey KH. Cumulative effects from repeated exposures to suberythemal doses of UVB and UVA in human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:53-62. PUBMED
85. Roberts LK, Beasley DG. The role of sunscreen in preventing ultraviolet-induced immune suppression. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102:665.
86. Lavker RM. Structural alterations in exposed and unexposed aged skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1979;73:59-66. PUBMED
87. Schwartz E, Cruickshank FA, Perlish JS, et al. Alterations in dermal collagen in ultraviolet irradiated hairless mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;93:142-146. PUBMED
88. Debrooner D. Here comes the sun. Am Druggist. 1994;210:30-34.
89. Agin P. Broad-spectrum protection in sunscreen products. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:648-650. Letter. PUBMED
90. Lombard D, Neubauer TE, Canfield D, Winett RA. Behavioral community intervention to reduce the risk of skin cancer. J Appl Behav Anal. 1991;24:677-686. PUBMED
91. Theobald T, Marks R, Hill D, Dorevitch A. 'Goodbye sunshine': effects of a television program about melanoma on beliefs, behavior, and melanoma thickness. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:717-723. PUBMED
92. Banks BA, Silverman RA, Schwartz RH, Tunnessen WW Jr. Attitudes of teenagers toward sun exposure and sunscreen use. Pediatrics. 1992;89:40-42. FREE FULL TEXT
93. Cody R, Lee C. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention. J Behav Med. 1990;13:373-389. PUBMED
94. Borland RM, Hocking B, Godkin GA, Gibbs AF, Hill DJ. The impact of a skin cancer control education package for outdoor workers. Med J Aust. 1991;154:686-688. PUBMED
95. Robinson JK. Behavior modification obtained by sun protection education coupled with removal of a skin cancer. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:477-481. FREE FULL TEXT
96. Foltz AT. Parental knowledge and practices of skin cancer prevention: a pilot study. J Pediatr Health Care. 1993;7:220-225. PUBMED
97. Grin CM, Pennoyer JW, Lehrich DA, et al. Sun exposure of young children while at day care. Pediatric Dermatol. 1994;11:304-309.
98. Weinstock MA, Stampfer MJ, Lew RA, Willett WC, Sober AJ. Case control study of melanoma and dietary vitamin D: implications for advocacy of sun protection and sunscreen use. J Invest Dermatol. 1992;98:809-811. PUBMED
99. Foley P, Nixon R, Frowen K, Thompson S. The frequency of reactions to sunscreens: results of a longitudinal population-based study on the regular use of sunscreens in Australia. Br J Dermatol. 1993;128:512-518. PUBMED
100. English JSC, White IR. Allergic contact dermatitis from isoproyl debenzoyl methane. Contact Dermatitis. 1986;15:94. PUBMED
101. Theeuwes M, Degreef H, Dooms-Gossens A. Para-aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) and sunscreen allergy. Am J Contact Dermatitis. 1992;3:206-207.
102. Bilsland D, Ferguson J. Contact allergy to sunscreen chemicals in photosensitivity dermatitis/actinic reteculoid syndrome (PD/AR) and polymorphic light eruption (PLE). Contact Dermatitis. 1993;29:70-73. PUBMED
103. Parrish JA, Pathak MA, Fitzpatrick TB. Facial irritation due to sunscreen products. Arch Dermatol. 1975;111:525. PUBMED
104. Dromgoole SH, Maibach HI. Sunscreening agent intolerance: contact and photo contact sensitization and contact urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1068-1078. PUBMED
105. Silber PM, Mills OH, Dammers KS, et al. Comparative skin irritation of high and low SPF sunscreen products. J Toxicol Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 1990;9:555-563.
106. Urback F. Testing the efficacy of sunscreens: effect of choice of source and spectral power distribution of ultraviolet radiation, and choice of end point. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1989;6:177-181.
107. De Rijcke S, Heenen M. Decrease of ultravioletinduced DNA injury in human skin by paminobenzoic acid esters. Dermatologica. 1989;179:196-199. PUBMED
108. Thompson SC, Julley D, Marks R. Reduction of solar keratosis by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1147-1151. FREE FULL TEXT
109. Naylor MF, Boyd A, Smith DW, Cameron GS, Hubbard D, Neldner KH. High sun protection factor sunscreens in the suppression of actinic neoplasia. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:170-175. FREE FULL TEXT
110. Moyal D, Chardon A, Hourseau C. Infra-red erythema and the part it plays in actinic erythema. Eur J Dermatol. 1993;3:64-67.
111. Clarkson DM, Grunfeld N, Hewak WJ. New ultraviolet monitoring technology. Hawaii Med J. 1993;52:116,146. PUBMED
112. Bargoil SC, Erdman LK. Safe tan, an oxymoron. Cancer Nurs. 1993;16:139-144. PUBMED
113. Protecting man from UV exposure. Lancet. 1991;337:1258-1259. PUBMED
114. Russell LC, Murray J. Patient education: recommendations regarding sunscreens, drugs, and diet. Ann Plast Surg. 1992;28:14-16. PUBMED
115. Mermelstein RJ, Riesenberg LA. Changing knowledge and attitudes about skin cancer risk in adolescents. Health Psychol. 1992;11:371-376. PUBMED
116. Berwick M, Fine JA, Bolognia JL. Sun exposure and sunscreen use following a community skin cancer screening. Prev Med. 1992;21:302-310. PUBMED
117. Kaminester LH. Suntanning centers. JAMA. 1980;11:1258-1259.
118. Stenberg A. Pseudoporphyria and sun beds. Acta Derm Venereol. 1990;70:354-356. PUBMED
119. Rivers JK, Norris PG, Murphy GM, et al. UVA sunbeds: tanning photoprotection, acute adverse effects, and immunologic changes. Br J Dermatol. 1989;120:767-777. PUBMED
120. Murphy GM, Wright J, Nicholls DSH, et al. Sunbed-induced pseudoporphyria. Br J Dermatol. 1989;120:555-562. PUBMED
121. Menter JM, Hollins TD, Sayre RM, et al. Protection against UV photocarcinogenesis by fabric materials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:711-716. PUBMED
122. Jevtic AP. The sun protective effect of clothing, including beach wear. Australas J Dermatol. 1990;31:5-7. PUBMED
123. Diffey BL, Cheeseman J. Sun protection with hats. Br J Dermatol. 1992;127:10-12. PUBMED
124. Cruickshanks KJ, Kein BE, Klein R. Ultraviolet light exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:1658-1662. FREE FULL TEXT
125. Zigman S, Yulo T, Schultz J. Cataract induction in mice exposed to near UV light. Ophthalmic Res. 1974;6:259-270.
126. Levy SB. Dihydroxyacetone-containing sunless or self-tanning lotions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:989-993. PUBMED
127. Kaminester LH. Crucial importance of the complete skin examination. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13:150-151. Letter. PUBMED
128. Chiarello SE. The comprehensive skin examination: reasons for, facts and method. J Geriatr Dermatol. 1994;2:99-102.
129. Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, Kopf AW, et al. Importance of complete cutaneous examination for the detection of malignant melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14:857-860. PUBMED
130. Marks R, Rennie G, Selwood T. Malignant transformation of solar keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma. Lancet. 1988;1:795-797. PUBMED
131. Naylor MF, Boyd A, Smith DW, et al. High sun protection factor sunscreen in the suppression of actinic neoplasia. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:170-175. FREE FULL TEXT
132. Grant-Kels JM. The impact of ozone depletion on the skin. Pediatr Dermatol. 1993;10:81-83. PUBMED
133. Coldiron B. Thinning of the ozone layer, facts and consequences. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:653-661. PUBMED
134. O'Donoghue MN. Sunscreen: one weapon against melanoma. Dermatol Clin. 1991;9:789-793. PUBMED
135. Hill MJ. Be a proponent of skin cancer awareness. Dermatol Nurs. 1990;2:66. PUBMED